Rapid developments in the technological space has brought about several benefits globally to many industries..
The world of shipping is no different and in the last decade there has been several advancements in this area although some parts of the industry still remains fragmented and lacking standards in how the business is conducted..
Cyber technologies have become essential and critical not just to the operation and management of numerous systems and processes on board ships but also for the safety, security and protection of the ship, the crew, the cargo, and the marine environment..
These technologies have integrated IT (Information Technology) and OT (Operational Technology) on board ships through networking and connectivity to the internet..
The access, connectivity and networking of these systems has however led to cyber security threats and risks..